Guide to the Twitter API – Part 3 of 3: An Overview of Twitter’s Streaming API

The Twitter Streaming API is designed to deliver limited volumes of data via two main types of realtime data streams: sampled streams and filtered streams. Many users like to use the Streaming API because the streaming nature of the data delivery means that the data is delivered closer to realtime than it is from the Search API (which I wrote about last week). But the Streaming API wasn’t designed to deliver full coverage results and so has some key limitations for enterprise customers. Let’s review the two types of data streams accessible from the Streaming API.The first type of stream is “sampled streams.” Sampled streams deliver a random sampling of Tweets at a statistically valid percentage of the full 100% Firehose. The free access level to the sampled stream is called the “Spritzer” and Twitter has it currently set to approximately 1% of the full 100% Firehose. (You may have also heard of the “Gardenhose,” or a randomly sampled 10% stream. Twitter used to provide some increased access levels to businesses, but announced last November that they’re not granting increased access to any new companies and gradually transitioning their current Gardenhose-level customers to Spritzer or to commercial agreements with resyndication partners like Gnip.)

The second type of data stream is “filtered streams.” Filtered streams deliver all the Tweets that match a filter you select (eg. keywords, usernames, or geographical boundaries). This can be very useful for developers or businesses that need limited access to specific Tweets.

Because the Streaming API is not designed for enterprise access, however, Twitter imposes some restrictions on its filtered streams that are important to understand. First, the volume of Tweets accessible through these streams is limited so that it will never exceed a certain percentage of the full Firehose. (This percentage is not publicly shared by Twitter.) As a result, only low-volume queries can reliably be accommodated. Second, Twitter imposes a query limit: currently, users can query for a maximum of 400 keywords and only a limited number of usernames. This is a significant challenge for many businesses. Third, Boolean operators are not supported by the Streaming API like they are by the Search API (and by Gnip’s API). And finally, there is no guarantee that Twitter’s access levels will remain unchanged in the future. Enterprises that need guaranteed access to data over time should understand that building a business on any free, public APIs can be risky.

The Search API and Streaming API are great ways to gather a sampling of social media data from Twitter. We’re clearly fans over here at Gnip; we actually offer Search API access through our Enterprise Data Collector. And here’s one more cool benefit of using Twitter’s free public APIs: those APIs don’t prohibit display of the Tweets you receive to the general public like premium Twitter feeds from Gnip and other resyndication partners do.

But whether you’re using the Search API or the Streaming API, keep in mind that those feeds simply aren’t designed for enterprise access. And as a result, you’re using the same data sets available to anyone with a computer, your coverage is unlikely to be complete, and Twitter reserves the right change the data accessibility or Terms of Use for those APIs at any time.

If your business dictates a need for full coverage data, more complex queries, an agreement that ensures continued access to data over time, or enterprise-level customer support, then we recommend getting in touch with a premium social media data provider like Gnip. Our complementary premium Twitter products include Power Track for data filtered by keyword or other parameters, and Decahose and Halfhose for randomly sampled data streams (10% and 50%, respectively). If you’d like to learn more, we’d love to hear from you at or 888.777.7405.

Migrating to the Twitter Streaming API: A Primer

Some context:

Long, long ago, in a galaxy far, far away, Twitter provided a firehose of data to a few of partners and the world was happy.  These startups were awash in real-time data and they got spoiled, some might say, by the embarrassment of riches that came through the real-time feed.  Over time, numerous factors caused Twitter to cease offering the firehose.  There was much wailing and gnashing of teeth on that day, I can tell you!

At roughly the same time, Twitter bought real-time search company Summize and began offering to everyone access to what is now known as the Search API.  Unlike Twitter’s existing REST API, which was based around usernames, the Search API enabled companies to query for recent data about a specific keyword.  Because of the nature of polling, companies had to contend with latency (the time between when someone performs an action and when an API consumer learns about it) and Twitter had to deal with a constantly-growing number of developers connected to an inherently inefficient interface.

Last year, Twitter announced that they were developing the spiritual successor to the firehose — a real-time stream that could be filtered on a per-customer basis and provide the real-time, zero latency results people wanted.  By August of last year, alpha customers had access to various components of the firehose (spritzer, the gardenhose, track, birddog, etc) and provided feedback that helped shape and solidify Twitter’s Streaming API.

A month ago Twitter Engineer John Kalucki (@jkalucki) posted on the Twitter API Announcements group that “High-Volume and Repeated Queries Should Migrate to Streaming API“.  In the post, he detailed several reasons why the move is beneficial to developers.  Two weeks later, another Twitter developer announced a new error code, 420, to let developers identify when they are getting rate limited by the Search API.  Thus, both the carrot and the stick have been laid out.

The streaming API is going to be a boon for companies who collect keyword-relevant content from the Twitter stream, but it does require some work on the part of developers.  In this post, we’ll help explain who will benefit from using Twitter’s new Streaming API and some ways to make the migration easier.

Question 1:  Do I need to make the switch?

Let me answer your question with another question — Do you have a predictable set of keywords that you habitually query?  If you don’t, keep using the Search API.  If you do, get thee to the Streaming API.


  • Use the Streaming API any time you are tracking a keyword over time or sending notifications /  summaries to a subscriber.
  • Use the Streaming API if you need to get *all* the tweets about a specific keyword.
  • Use the Search API for visualization and search tools where a user enters a non-predictable search query for a one-time view of results.
  • What if you offer a configurable blog-based search widget? You may have gotten away with beating up the Search API so far, but I’d suggest setting up a centralized data store and using it as your first look-up location when loading content — it’s bad karma to force a data provider to act as your edge cache.

Question 2: Why should I make the switch?

  • First and foremost, you’ll get relevant tweets significantly faster.  Linearly polling an API or RSS feed for a given set of keywords automatically creates latency which increases at a linear rate.  Assuming one query per second, the average latency for 1,000 keywords is a little over eight minutes; the average latency for 100,000 keywords is almost 14 hours!  With the Streaming API, you get near-real-time (usually within one second) results, regardless of the number of keywords you track.
  • With traditional API polling, each query returns N results regardless of whether any results are new since your last request.  This puts the onus of deduping squarely on your shoulders.  This sounds like it should be simple — cache the last N resultIDs in memory and ignore anything that’s been seen before.  At scale, high-frequency keywords will consume the cache and low frequency keywords quickly age out.  This means you’ll invariably have to hit the disk and begin thrashing your database. Thankfully, Twitter has already obviated much of this in the Search API with an optional “since_id” query parameter, but plenty of folks either ignore the option or have never read the docs and end up with serious deduplication work.  With Twitter’s Streaming API, you get a stream of tweets with very little duplication.
  • You will no longer be able to get full fidelity (aka all the tweets for a given keyword) from the Search API.  Twitter is placing increased weight on relevance, which means that, among other things, the Search API’s results will no longer be chronologically ordered.  This is great news from a user-facing functionality perspective, but it also means that if you query the Search API for a given keyword every N seconds, you’re no longer guaranteed to receive the new tweets each time.
  • We all complain about the limited backwards view of Twitter’s search corpus.  On any given day, you’ll have access to somewhere between seven and 14 days worth of historical data (somewhere between one quarter to one half billion tweets), which is of limited value when trying to discover historical trends.  Additionally, for high volume keywords (think Obama or iPhone or Toyota), you may only have access to an hour of historical data, due to the limited number of results accessible through Twitter’s paging system.  While there is no direct correlation between the number of queries against a database and the amount of data that can be indexed, there IS a direct correlation between devoting resources to handle ever-growing query demands and not having resources to work on growing the index.  As persistent queries move to the Streaming API, Twitter will be able to devote more resources to growing the index of data available via the Search API (see Question 4, below).
  • Lastly, you don’t really have a choice.  While Twitter has not yet begun to heavily enforce rate limiting (Gnip’s customers currently see few errors at 3,600 queries per hour), you should expect the Search API’s performance profile to eventually align with the REST API (currently 150 queries per hour, reportedly moving to 1,500 in the near future).

Question 3: Will I have to change my API integration?

Twitter’s Streaming API uses streaming HTTP

  • With traditional HTTP requests, you initiate a connection to a web server, the server sends results and the connection is closed.  With streaming HTTP, the connection is maintained and new data gets sent over a single long-held response.  It’s not unusual to see a Streaming API connection last for two or three days before it gets reset.
  • That said, you’ll need to reset the connection every time you change keywords.  With the Streaming API , you upload the entire set of keywords when establishing a connection.  If you have a large number of keywords, it can take several minutes to upload all of them and during the duration you won’t get any streaming results.  The way to work around this is to initiate a second Streaming API connection, then terminate the original connection once the new one starts receiving data.  In order to adhere to Twitter’s request that you not initiate a connection more than once every couple of minutes, highly volatile rule sets will need to batch changes into two minute chunks.
  • You’ll need to decouple data collection from data processing.  If you fall behind in reading data from the stream, there is no way to go back and get it (barring making a request from the Search API).  The best way to ensure that you are always able to keep up with the flow of streaming data is to place incoming data into a separate process for transformation, indexing and other work.  As a bonus, decoupling enables you to more accurately measure the size of your backlog.

Streaming API consumers need to perform more filtering on their end

  • Twitter’s Streaming API only accepts single-term rules; no more complex queries.  Say goodbye to ANDs, ORs and NOTs.  This means that if you previously hit the Search API looking for “Avatar Movie -Game”, you’ve got some serious filtering to do on your end.  From now on, you’ll add to the Streaming API one or more of the required keywords (Avatar and/or Movie) and filter out from the results anything without both keywords and containing the word “Game”.
  • You may have previously relied on the query terms you sent to Twitter’s Search API to help you route the results internally, but now the onus is 100% on you.  Think of it this way: Twitter is sending you a personalized firehose based upon your one-word rules.  Twitter’s schema doesn’t include a <keyword> element, so you don’t know which of your keywords are contained in a given Tweet.  You’ll have to inspect the content of the tweet in order to route appropriately.
  • And remember, duplicates are the exception, not the rule, with the Streaming API, so if a given tweet matches multiple keywords, you’ll still only receive it once.  It’s important that you don’t terminate your filtering algo on your first keyword or filter match; test against every keyword, every time.

Throttling is performed differently

  • Twitter throttles their Search API by IP address based upon the number of queries per second.  In a world of real-time streaming results, this whole concept is moot.  Instead, throttling is defined by the number of keywords a given account can track and the overall percentage of the firehose you can receive.
  • The default access to the Streaming API is 200 keywords; just plug in your username and password and off you go.  Currently, Twitter offers approved customers access to 10,000 keywords (restricted track) and 200,000 keywords (partner track).  If you need to track more than 200,000 keywords, Twitter may bind “partner track” access to multiple accounts, giving you access to 400,000 keywords or even more.
  • In addition to keyword-based streams, Twitter makes available several specific-use streams, including the link stream (All tweets with a URL) and the retweet stream (all retweets).  There are also various levels of userid-based streams (follow, shadow and birddog) and the overall firehose (spritzer, gardenhose and firehose), but they are outside the bounds of this post.
  • The best place to begin your quest for increased Streaming API is an email to — briefly describe your company and use case along with the requested access levels. (This process will likely change for coming Commercial Accounts.)
  • Twitter’s Streaming API is throttled at the overall stream level. Imagine that you’ve decided to try to get as many tweets as you can using track.  I know, I know, who would do such a thing?  Not you, certainly.  But imagine that you did — you entered 200 stop words, like “and”, “or”, “the” and “it” in order to get a ton of tweets flowing to you.  You would be sorely disappointed, because twitter enforces a secondary throttle, a percentage of firehose available to each access level.  The higher the access level (partner track vs. restricted track vs. default track), the greater the percentage you can consume.  Once you reach that amount, you will be momentarily throttled and all matching tweets will be dropped on the floor.  No soup for you!  You should monitor this by watching for “limit” notifications.  If you find yourself regularly receiving these, either tighten up your keywords are request greater access from Twitter.

Start tracking deletes

  • Twitter sends deletion notices down the pipe when a user deletes one of their own tweets.  While Twitter does not enforce adoption of this feature, please do the right thing and implement it.  When a user deletes a tweet, they want it stricken from the public record.  Remember, “it ain’t complete if you don’t delete.”  We just made that up.  Just now.  We’re pretty excited about it.

Question 4: What if I want historical data too?

Twitter’s Streaming API is forward-looking, so you’ll only get new tweets when you add a new keyword.  Depending on your use case you may need some historical data to kick things off.  If so, you’ll want to make one simultaneous query to the Search API.  This means that you’ll need to maintain two integrations with Twitter APIs (three, if you’re taking advantage of Twitter’s REST API for tracking specific users), but the benefit is historical data + low-latency / high-reliability future data.

And as described before, the general migration to the Streaming API should result in deeper results from the Search API, but even now you can get around 1,500 results for a keyword if you get acquainted with the “page” query parameter.

Questions 5: What if I need more help?

Twitter resources:

Streaming HTTP resources:

Gnip help:

  • Ask questions in the comments below and we’ll respond inline
  • Send email to to ask the Gnip team direct questions

Reminder: Gnip Platform Updates This Friday

This post is meant to provide a reminder and additional guidance for Gnip platform users as we transition to the new Twitter Streaming API at the end of the week.   We have lots going and want to make sure companies and developers are keeping up with the moving parts.

  • Friday, June 19th:  Twitter is turning off the original XMPP firehose that we have used as the default “Twitter Data Publisher” in the Community Edition of the platform.
  • Starting on Friday, June 19th the new default “Twitter Data Publisher” in the Community Edition of the platform will be integrated to the new “spritzer” tier of the Twitter Streaming API.     Spritzer is a sample of the Twitter stream and not a “firehose”.   This is the default publicly available stream that Twitter is allowing Gnip to make available for anyone to integrate.
  • All Gnip users will be able to access full-data filters with the updated Twitter Data Publisher
  • If your company has an authorized Twitter account for the gardenhose, shadow or birddog tiers and do not want to build and maintain this integration contact us by email at or to discuss how Gnip can provide a solution.

Helpful information about the new Twitter Streaming API:

PS:  The planned Facebook integration is coming along and we have our internal prototype completed.  Driving toward the beta and should have more details in the next week or two.

PSS: We would still appreciate any feedback people can provide on their Twitter data intgration needs – take the survey

Update: How Gnip Filters will Support New Twitter Streaming API

Last week we informed the community of our plans to transition to the new Twitter Streaming API. (see the blog post)  This post is going to focus on providing some information on how Gnip Filters will be updated in order to support the new requirements of the Streaming API.

Here is a general summary of what Gnip users need to have in mind to prepare for the transition.

1) The Twitter Streaming API uses HTTP Basic Authentication to open up a connection.   The authentication requires the Twitter Username:Password combination, and the account access tier is set at the Twitter account level.

2) The default Gnip support provided to users will be to the “spritzer” and “follow” tiers as these are public and can be accessed by any valid Twitter account.

3) Developers and companies that have use cases which require higher levels of access (gardenhose, shadow, birddog) need to send an email directly to Twitter at The email should include basic information about your use case, the access level that is required (gardenhose, shadow, birddog), and the Twitter account to map the access.  Also,  Twitter has a new URL to request access for the gardenhose level.

Also, to provide a preview of what the new Gnip filters will provide we wanted to include some screen shots of what we are working on at this time.   (Also, you will notice the prototypes were built using an updated user experience we are working on for a future release)

Figure 1:  Gnip Filter Creation

This is the start page for creating a Gnip filter that will connect to the new Twitter Streaming API.   Users now will need to provide a valid Twitter account in order to support the HTTP Basic Authentication requirements of the API.


Figure 2: Gnip Filters will support the multiple tiers of the Twitter Streaming API

Twitter has multiple tiers for the Streaming API which will be supported in this update to the Gnip filters.  In the developer web app or at the Gnip API it will be possible to select the Streaming API tier that the filter will access.


Gnip: Transitioning to New Twitter Streaming API in June

When we started Gnip last year Twitter was among the first group of companies that understood the data integration problems we were trying to solve for developers and companies.   Because Gnip and Twitter were able to work together it has been possible to access and integrate data from Twitter by using the Gnip platform since last July using Gnip Notifications, and since last September using Gnip Data Activities.

All of this data access was the result of Gnip working with the Twitter XMPP “firehose” API to provide Twitter data access for users of both the Gnip Community and Standard edition product offerings.   Recently Twitter announced a new Streaming API and began an alpha program to start making the new API available.  Gnip has been testing the new Streaming API and now we are planning to move from the current XMPP API to the new Streaming API in the middle of June.    This transition to the new Streaming API will mean some changes in the default behavior and ability to access Twitter data as described below

New Streaming API Transition Highlights

  1. Gnip will now be able to provide both Gnip Notifications and Gnip Data Activities to all users of the Gnip platform.   We had stopped providing access to Data Activities to new customers last November when Twitter began working on the new API, but now all users of the Gnip platform can use either Notifications or Data Activities based on what is appropriate for their application use case.
  2. There are no changes to the Gnip API or service endpoints of Gnip Publishers and Filters due to this transition.  This is changing the default Twitter API that we integrate to for data from Twitter (added about 2 hours after original post)
  3. The Twitter Streaming API is meant to accommodate a class of applications that require near-real-time access to Twitter public statuses and is provided with several tiers of streaming API methods.  See the Twitter documentation for more information.
  4. The default Streaming API tiers that Gnip will be making available are the new “spritzer” and “follow” stream methods.   These are the only tiers which are made available publicly without requiring an end user agreement directly with Twitter at this time.
  5. The “spritzer” stream method is not a “firehose” as the XMPP stream that Gnip previously used as our default.   The average messages per second is still being worked out by Twitter, but at this time “spritzer” runs in the ballpark of 10-20 messages per second and can vary depending on lots of variables being managed by Twitter.
  6. The “follow” stream method returns public statuses from a specified set of users, by ID.
  7. For more on “spritzer”, “follow”, and other methods see the Twitter Streaming API Documentation.

What About Companies and Developers With Use Cases Are Not Met With the Twitter “Spritzer” and “Follow” Streaming API methods

Gnip and Twitter realize that many use cases exist for how companies want to use Twitter data and that new applications are being built everyday.   Therefore we are exploring how companies that are authorized by Twitter for other Streaming API methods  would be able to use the Gnip platform as their integration platform of choice.


Twitter has several additional Streaming API methods available to approved parties that require a signed agreement to access.   To better understand which developers and companies using the Gnip platform could benefit from these other Streaming API options we would encourage Gnip platform users to take this short 12 question survey: Gnip: Twitter Data Publisher Survey (URL:

What About the Gnip Twitter-search Data Publisher?

The Gnip Twitter-search Data Publisher is not impacted by the transition to the new Twitter Streaming API since it is implemented using the new Gnip Polling Service and provides keyword-based data integration to the search.twitter APIs.

We will provide more information when we lock down the actual day for the transition shortly.    Please take the survey and as always please contact us directly at or send me a direct email at