Panel about the increasing use of social data by government and organizations for public service. Participants included Ian Cairns, Principal of Watershed Strategy; Moeed Ahmad, Head of New Media at Al Jazeera Media Network; Katie Baucom, Geospatial Analyst at National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and Rumi Chunara, Instructor at Harvard Medical School and Healthmap.
Social Data at Al Jazeera
Moeed Ahmad kicked off the panel by talking about the state of the Al Jazeera networks when he started in 2005, essentially it was the army channel. Al Jazeera was launched in 1996 with an Arabic channel, English channel, 20 sports channels and a documentary channel. When Moeed started there was a major shift happening in media and overlooking the serious impact that social media had would have hurt the channel. Al Jazeera was the single voice of the Arab region at a time when most news stations were statewide. Al Jazeera was the outlet for people on the streets to share how they were feeling. Like traditional news across the world, young people had stopped watching news and started getting it online. Al Jazeera recognized they needed to shift and need a dedicated social media team.
During 2008 to 2009 is when Twitter came of age. During this time period, the Iranian elections were happening and Twitter in conjunction with the Iranian election raised new concerns about verification. Other stations were just running the Twitter steam about the election on their networks but weren’t providing context. In addition, now they needed a new way of verifying this type of content. It was hard to tell signal from noise since so many people changed their location to Tehran.
One of the interesting ways Al Jazeera was able to collect people’s stories was during the famine in Somalia and there was a UN Conference to address what was happening. Al Jazeera took a lo-fi method to getting people to tell their stories in a way that was verifiable, they did a simple SMS blast asking people to tell Al Jazeera their stories and had thousands of people responding. This allowed them to create their site Somalia Speaks.
Moeed told a really interesting story about the Arab Spring, and how they were missing what was happening in Tunisia at the time. Al Jazeera prides themselves on reporting news, and they don’t give readers what they want. You won’t find Britney Spears a frequent topic on Al Jazeera. During the beginning of the protests in Tunisia, Al Jazeera was busy telling a story about the Palestine Papers, which they had been working on for the last several months.
One of the important jobs Al Jazeera charges themselves with is to subtract the noise out of social media and add context to the stories being told. They consider verification to be important especially when others are trying to discredit their reporting. With both Syria and Libya, they’ve seen false reports with people to being claimed to being bombed. Reporting on it would have discredited Al Jazeera. One video they were sent they asked their Twitter followers to verify and learned that the video was three years old and from Iraq. Yet social media has still been a formidable source for them and most of their coverage from Syria has come from YouTube or Facebook.
Social Data at National Geospatial Intelligence Agency
Katie Baucom talked about how the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency works on disaster crisis response and helps create damage assessments of natural disasters using satellite imagery. About a year and a half ago they started using social data to help fill in the gaps. Their team is able to start using Twitter text and imagery immediately while satellite images can take half a day or day. With the recent tornados that were hitting Texas, her team could see a lot of imagery from Twitter. An important aspect of this is that they were able to learn about new cities that were struck by the tornados based on Twitter.
One aspect that everyone is trying to figure out is information sharing vs emergency response. When you call 911, it is illegal to make a false emergency call, however the laws haven’t caught up to Twitter. This is no law against falsely asking for help or making a false claim on Twitter.
Her agency is also looking at ways for search and rescue teams to be able to verify information including possibly having a social media feed on their phone and allowing them to verify information and to take a look at aggregate areas.
Social Data to Predict Epidemics
Rumi Chunara talked about her work to predict epidemics using social data and other new types of information. Rumi got her start in working with biosensors but switched her focus on exploring social data and other alternative types of information. She wanted to incorporate as many sources as possible.
For verifying her research, one of her methods is to work with trusted users or to compare information to what physicians on the ground are observing. With a research project they conducted about Twitter and Cholera in Haiti they found that Twitter was a quicker way of detecting Cholera as it was spreading through Haiti after the 2010 earthquake. As part of their research, they compared findings with an infectious disease specialist on the ground. Her team is working on creating improved techniques for predicting new outbreaks. They’re still looking at ways to communicate with users directly.
One way for Rumi and her team to verify information is to use math to identify “false positives.” Another aspect they use is having people use their iPhone app, “Outbreaks Near Me”, to verify information.